Authors: Deusch, S; Serrano-Villar, S; Rojo, D; Martinez-Martinez, M; Bargiela, R; Vazquez-Castellanos, JF; Sainz, T; Barbas, C; Moya, A; Moreno, S; Gosalbes, MJ; Estrada, V; Seifert, J; Ferrer, M

Article.
Aids. vol: 32. page: 0269-9370.
Date: jun-19. 2018.
Doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001831.

Abstract:
Objective: In a recent blinded randomized study, we found that in HIV-infected individuals a short supplementation with prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS/glutamine) ameliorates dysbiosis of total gut bacteria, particularly among viremic untreated patients. Our study goal was to determine the fraction of the microbiota that becomes active during the intervention and that could provide additional functional information. Design: A total of six healthy individuals, and 16 HIV-infected patients comprising viremic untreated patients (n=5) and antiretroviral therapy-treated patients that are further divided into immunological responders (n=7) and immunological nonresponders (n=4) completed the 6-week course of prebiotic treatment, including six patients receiving a placebo. Methods:Alpha and beta diversity of potentially active and total gut microbiota was evaluated using shotgun proteomics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results: HIV infection decreased dormancy and increased alpha diversity of active bacteria in comparison with the healthy controls, whose richness was not further influenced by the prebiotic intervention. The effect of the prebiotics was most evident at the beta-diversity of active bacteria, particularly within viremic untreated patients. We found that the prebiotics did not only ameliorate dysbiosis of total bacteria in viremic untreated patients but also increased the abundance of active bacteria with strong immunomodulatory properties and amino acids metabolism, namely Bifidobacteriaceae, at similar levels to those in healthy individuals. This effect was attenuated in ART-treated individuals. Conclusion: The effect of prebiotics was greater among ART-naive HIV-infected individuals than in ART-treated patients and healthy controls. This highlights the importance of therapies aimed at manipulating the microbiome in this group of patients.Copyright (C) 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved..