Authors: Rangel-Rivera, P; Bachiller-Baeza, MB; Galindo-Esquivel, I; Rangel-Porras, G

Article.
Appl. Surf. Sci.. vol: 445. page: 0169-4332.
Date: jul-01. 2018.
Doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.03.157.

Abstract:
The interactions between the clay surface and the organic molecules play an important role in the efficient of these materials in adsorption and catalytic processes. These materials are often modified with the inclusion of other catalytic particles for the purpose of enhancing the activity. In this study, commercial clay K10 was modified with the particles inclusion of titanium and zirconium. The solid surfaces were examined by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy device (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3) and propan-2-ol decomposition test reaction were performed to probe the acid properties. The adsorption of acetic acid, ethanol, and propan-2-ol on the surface of each solid and their thermal stability were studied by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, these materials were used in the esterification of acetic acid with penta-1-ol. The real effect over the incorporation of titanium species and zirconium species on clay surface for interacting with the organic molecules was discussed. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved..