Authors: del Pozo, MD; Lope, V; Criado-Navarro, I; Pastor-Barriuso, R; de Larrea, NF; Ruiz, E; Castello, A; Lucas, P; Sierra, A; Romieu, I; Chajes, V; Priego-Capote, F; Perez-Gomez, B; Pollan, M Article. Nutrients. vol: 12. page: . Date: JUN. 2020. Doi: 10.3390/nu12061895. Abstract: This study investigates the still uncertain association between serum phospholipid fatty acids (PL-FA), and anthropometric and adiposity variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1443 Spanish premenopausal women. Participants answered an epidemiological and a food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric variables were measured using a bioimpedance scale. Serum PL-FAs levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The association between body mass index (BMI), weight gain, body fat percentage, visceral fat index, and waist circumference with serum PL-FAs and desaturation indices was evaluated using multivariable linear regression models. BMI was positively associated with the relative concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) (beta = 0.94, q-val = 0.001), and with palmitoleic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DGLA), arachidonic (AA) and alpha-linolenic acids, and was inversely associated with oleic, gondoic, trans-vaccenic, linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids. Total fat percentage was positively associated with DGLA and AA, and inversely with linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids. Low relative concentrations of some SFAs and high levels of n-6 PUFAs were associated with greater waist circumference. While the oleic/stearic and AA/DGLA acid ratios were inversely associated with BMI, DGLA/linoleic acid ratio was positively related to almost all variables. In addition to BMI, total fat percentage and waist circumference were also associated with certain individual fatty acids..