Authors: Ntziouni, A; Thomson, J; Xiarchos, I; Li, X; Banares, MA; Charitidis, C; Portela, R; Diz, EL

Appl. Spectrosc.. vol: 76. page: 0003-7028.
Date: JUL. 2022.
Doi: 10.1177/00037028221090988.

Over the past decades Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used both on an industrial and academic level. This has resulted in the development of numerous specialized Raman techniques and Raman active products, which in turn has led to the adoption and development of standards and norms pertaining to Raman unit’s calibration, performance validation, and interoperability. Purpose of the present review is to list, classify, and engage in a comprehensive analysis of the different standards, guides, and practices relating to Raman spectroscopy. Primary aim of the review is to consider the commonalities and conflicts between these standards and norms and to identify any missing aspects. Standardization in the field of Raman spectroscopy is dominated by the work of American institutions, namely, the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM or ASTM International), with several active standards in place pertaining to terminology, calibration, multivariate analysis, and specific applications, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), providing numerous certified reference materials, referred to as standard reference materials. The industrial application of Raman spectroscopy is dominated by the pharmaceutical industry. As such, pharmacopoeias provide not only important information in relation to pharmaceutical-related applications of Raman spectroscopy, but also invaluable insight, into the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and important aspects that include calibration, validation, measurement, and chemometric analysis processes, usually by referring to ASTM and NIST standards. Given the fact that Raman spectroscopy is a modern and innovative field, the standardization processes are complex and constantly evolving. Despite the seemingly high number of existing standards, the standardization landscape is incomplete and has not been modernized according to the developments in Raman spectroscopy techniques in recent years. This is evident by the lack of protocols for numerous areas as well as by the fact that some of the existing standards have not been updated to reflect the advances in the technique. Therefore, it is important for the Raman community to actively engage in and contribute to a modernization process that will result in updating existing and introducing new terms, protocols, and guides. Indeed, the development of optimized common standards would be extremely beneficial and would further foster the development and application of Raman spectroscopy techniques, most notably those of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and low-resolution portable analyzers..